What are optical fiber? Why is fiber internet faster than others?

Optical fiber: How are data transmitted so fast from within a fine fiber cable like a hair? Why is fiber-fast and secure and how does this technology work?

Story Highlights
Fiber optics or optical fiber is the fastest means of data transfer. Hair is as fine as optical fibers that transmit data through light.
Fiber internet is quite popular these days. Until a few years ago, broadband connections were rarely optical fiber-based. Or wireless, WiMax was used or the internet was given to the users through normal internet cable.

Now the demand for fiber internet has increased in the market. The reason for this is that high speed can be achieved through fiber internet, which means that data transfer is much faster. Even though fiber internet is new for a common user, optical fiber has been used for many years in the internet world. In fact, fiber cables were sung in 1950 for medical use.

It was invented to allow doctors to see inside the patient’s body through a fiber cable without extensive surgery. In a way, the network of the internet in the whole world is not possible without fiber. Fibers are spread around the world like a spider web and this is the reason that you have internet access. However, we tell you how this optical fiber technology works.

What is optical fiber?

You can consider fiber optics as the medium of transmission. Or you can think of it as a thin pipe whose data traverses at the speed of the front light. Fiber cables are also thinner than hairs and are much longer. Fine fiber optics are also protected with an outer layer from multiple hairs at once so that they do not break. These are placed in a bundle and are called optical cables. The specialty of fiber optics is that they carry data through light for long distances.

Since the speed of light is very high, they are used to transmit data. If you look at fiber optics carefully, you will find that there is empty space inside the fine wire even from the hair. You can try yourself, by taking fiber cable, you can test with laser light from one end to the other. If you hit the laser from one end in empty space, you will be able to see that light at the other end. Actually, this technique is used when the optical fiber is cut or there is some trouble with it.

More than one fiber strands reside inside a cable. Even the cables that go inside the ocean have thousands of thin fibers that are placed inside a cable. They are also called cores. That is, 10 fibers are going in one cable, you can call them 10 cores. By looking at them closely, you will also be able to see the glass. Apart from this, there are core, cladding, and buffer coating.

The thin glass inside the core from where light travels. The cladding is an outer optical material that is used so that the light can reflect from here to the core and remain inside. Buffer coating is a plastic coating that protects fibers from damage. It also has an outer layer which is also called a jacket.

How do Fiber Optics Work?

Think of it like a pipe in which data is transmitted through light. The fiber optics wall is designed in such a way that the light collides with it to go far enough and not spread around. But what if the wire twisted somewhere? In such a situation, the light will not be able to go forward. The light did not go ahead, ie the internet stopped? It happens. But to prevent this, there is cladding inside the cable through which the light bounces continuously. The cladding can also be called mirror-lined walls. The cladding does not absorb the light anymore, so the light is going forward. For these reasons, light travels for many kilometers comfortably.

Why is fiber optics fast and secure?

As we mentioned earlier, here the data travels through light, obviously, the speed of light is achieved in vacuum up to about 3 lakh kilometers per second, so you can guess how fast the data can travel. There is currently nothing faster than light and it is used in fiber optics. Talking about traditional internet cable, there is the transmission with an electric signal which is very slow compared to light. Fiber optic cables also transmit data faster than copper and satellite. Fiber optic is also considered better in terms of data security. Because hacking a fiber optic cable is tricky and expensive compared to satellite and copper wire

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